# 8th Grade Essential Standards

- Language Arts: Reading Literature
- Language Arts: Reading Informational
- Language Arts: Writing
- Math: Expressions and Equations
- Math: Functions
- Math: Geometry
- Science
- Social Studies: History
- Social Studies: Economics
- Social Studies: Inquiry

## Language Arts: Reading Literature

**RL.8.1 **Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**RL.8.2 **Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

**RL.8.10 **By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

## Language Arts: Reading Informational

**RI.8.1 **Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**RI.8.2 **Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

**RI.8.6 **Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

**RI.8.8 **Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

**RI.8.9 **Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

**RI.8.10 **By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

## Language Arts: Writing

**W.8.1 **Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

**W.8.1a**Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.**W.8.1b**Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.**W.8.1c**Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.**W.8.1d**Establish and maintain a formal style.**W.8.1e**Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

**W.8.2 **Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

**W.8.2a**Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.**W.8.2b**Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.**W.8.2c**Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.**W.8.2d**Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.**W.8.2e**Establish and maintain a formal style.**W.8.2f**Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

**W.8.7: **Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

**W.8.9 **Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**W8.9a**Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new").**W8.9b**Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced").

## Math: Expressions and Equations

**8.EE.A.1 **Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3-5 = 3-3 = 1/33 = 1/27.

**8.EE.B.5 **Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

**8.EE.B.6 **Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

**8.EE.C.7 **Solve linear equations in one variable. 8.EE.C.7a - Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

**8.EE.C.8 **Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

**8.EE.C.8a**Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.**8.EE.C.8b**Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.8.EE.C.8c - Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables.

## Math: Functions

**8.F.A.2 **Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

**8.F.A.3 **Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

**8.F.B.4 **Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

**8.F.B.5 **Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

## Math: Geometry

**8.G.A.1 **Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations:

**8.G.A.1a**Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.**8.G.A.1b**Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.**8.G.A.1c**Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

**8.G.B.7 **Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.

## Science

Teach all grade level standards as laid out in the **Science Learning Standards for Illinois**.

## Social Studies: History

**SS.H.6-8.1.MC**. Evaluate the significance of historical events to multiple groups and the relationship to modern-day movements and events.

**SS.H.6-8.2.LC **Explain how and why perspectives of people have changed over time.

**SS.H.6-8.2.MdC**. Analyze and compare multiple factors that influenced the perspectives of multiple groups of people during different historical eras relevant to the cultural groups.

**SS.H.6-8.4.LC**. Describe the difference between correlation and causation in historical events and explain multiple causes and effects of historical events.

**SS.H.6-8.4.MC**. Organize applicable evidence into a coherent argument about the past.

## Social Studies: Economics

**SS.EC.1.6-8.LC**. Explain how economic decisions affect the well-being of individuals, businesses and society.

**SS.EC.1.6-8.MC**. Evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to current economic issues in terms of benefits and costs for different groups and society as a whole.

**SS.EC.2.6-8.LC**. Analyze the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in a market economy.

**SS.EC.2.6-8.MC**. Explain how changes in supply and demand cause changes in prices and quantities of goods and services, labor, credit, and foreign currencies.

## Social Studies: Inquiry

**SS.IS.6-8.1** Create essential questions that consider multiple perspectives to guide inquiry about a topic.

**SS.IS.6-8.3** Determine sources representing multiple points of view and diversity of authorship that will assist in organizing a research plan.

**SS.IS.6-8.4.LC** Determine the value of sources by evaluating their relevance and intended use.

**SS.IS.6-8.4.MdC**. Determine credibility of sources based upon their origin, authority, and context.

**SS.IS.6-8.4.MC.** Gather relevant information from credible sources and determine whether they support each other.

**SS.IS.6-8.5.MdC**. Identify evidence from multiple sources to support claims, noting any limitations of the evidence.

**SS.IS.6-8.6.LC**. Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the arguments’ strengths and limitations.

**SS.IS.6-8.7** Critique the structure and credibility of arguments and explanations (self and others).

## In This Section

### Kagan

**Kagan cooperative learning structures are one way in which high student engagement is supported throughout the district. **