# 6th Grade Essential Standards

- Language Arts: Reading Literature
- Language Arts: Reading Informational
- Language Arts: Writing
- Math: Ratios and Proportions
- Math: The Number System
- Math: Expressions and Equations
- Science
- Social Studies: History
- Social Studies: Geography
- Social Studies: Inquiry

## Language Arts: Reading Literature

**RL.6.1 **Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**RL.6.2 **Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RL.6.10 **By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

## Language Arts: Reading Informational

**RI.6.1 **Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**RI.6.2 **Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RI.6.6** Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

**RI.6.7 **Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

**RI.6.8 **Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

**RI.6.10** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

## Language Arts: Writing

**W.6.1 **Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

**W6.1a**Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.**W6.1b**Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.**W6.1c**Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.**W6.1d**Establish and maintain a formal style.**W6.1e**Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

**W.6.2 **Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

**W6.2a**Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.**W6.2b**Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.**W6.2c**Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.**W6.2d**Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.**W6.2e**Establish and maintain a formal style.**W6.2f**Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.

**W.6.7 **Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

**W.6.8 **Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

**W.6.9 **Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**W.6.9a**Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics").**W.6.9b**Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., "Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not").

## Math: Ratios and Proportions

**6.RP.A.1** Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems ~ Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities.

**6.RP.A.2** Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems ~ Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship.

**6.RP.A.3** Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems ~ Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.

**6.RP.A.3a**Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole-number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.**6.RP.A.3b**Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed.**6.RP.A.3c**Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.**6.RP.A.3d**Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.

## Math: The Number System

**6.NS.A.1 **Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions ~ Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

**6.NS.C.5 **Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers ~ Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.

**6.NS.C.6 **Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers ~ Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.

**6.NS.C.6a**Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., –(–3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite**6.NS.C.6b**Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes.**6.NS.C.6c**Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.

**6.NS.C.8 **Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers ~ Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.

## Math: Expressions and Equations

**6.EE.A.1 **Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions ~ Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.

**6.EE.A.2 **Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

**6.EE.A.2a**Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions ~ Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers.**6.EE.A.2b**Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions ~ Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity.**6.EE.A.2c**Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions ~ Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations).

**6.EE.A.3 **Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions ~ Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.

**6.EE.A.4 **Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions ~ Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them).

**6.EE.B.5 **Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities ~ Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.

**6.EE.B.7 **Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities ~ Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.

**6.EE.C.9 **Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables ~ Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that changes in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time.

## Science

Teach all grade level standards as laid out in the **Science Learning Standards for Illinois**.

## Social Studies: History

## Social Studies: Geography

**SS.G.1.6-8.LC**. Use geographic representations (maps, photographs, satellite images, etc.) to explain relationships between the locations (places and regions) and changes in their environment.

**SS.G.2.6-8.LC**. Explain how humans and their environment affect one another.

**SS.G.2.6-8.MC**. Evaluate how cultural and economic decisions influence environments and the daily lives of people in both nearby and distant places.

**SS.G.3.6-8.LC**. Explain how environmental characteristics impact human migration and settlement.

**SS.G.3.6-8.MdC**. Explain how changes in transportation and communication influence the spatial connections among human settlements and affect the spread of ideas and culture.

**SS.G.3.6-8.MC**. Evaluate the influences of long term human-induced environmental change on spatial patterns of conflict and cooperation.

**SS.G.4.6-8.LC**. Identify how cultural and environmental characteristics vary among regions of the world.

## Social Studies: Inquiry

**SS.IS.6-8.1** Create essential questions that consider multiple perspectives to guide inquiry about a topic.

**SS.IS.6-8.3** Determine sources representing multiple points of view and diversity of authorship that will assist in organizing a research plan.

**SS.IS.6-8.4.LC**. Determine the value of sources by evaluating their relevance and intended use.

**SS.IS.6-8.4.MdC**. Determine credibility of sources based upon their origin, authority, and context.

**SS.IS.6-8.4.MC**. Gather relevant information from credible sources and determine whether they support each other.

**SS.IS.6-8.5.MdC**. Identify evidence from multiple sources to support claims, noting any limitations of the evidence.

**SS.IS.6-8.6.LC**. Construct arguments using claims and evidence from multiple sources, while acknowledging the arguments’ strengths and limitations.

**SS.IS.8.6-8.LC**. Analyze how a problem can manifest itself, identify the individuals and communities impacted by a problem, and address the challenges and opportunities faced by those trying to take action toward solutions.

## In This Section

### Kagan

**Kagan cooperative learning structures are one way in which high student engagement is supported throughout the district. **